Participles function as adjectives in a sentence, while participial phrases are groups of words that consist of a participle, but not a complete sentence. There are two types of participles, namely, present participles and past participles. Present participles end in –ing, while Past participles end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, -n, or –ne, like baked, eaten, dealt, and other action words.

Participial phrases can be restrictive and nonrestrictive. It is a restrictive clause if it directly narrows down to the word it modifies. A few of the examples are the following:

The burned food was eaten by the kid. 
The roasted turkey was prepared for the thanksgiving.
The bathed dog shook its head. 
The injured girl who played the Frisbee tournament wished she had stayed home.
  • From this sentence, it’s the “who” that restricts the sentence. It directly defines what the girl did.

From what you can observe in the sentences, it points out directly to the main topic. On the other hand, a nonrestrictive clause begins with a word that is surrounded by comma/s so that the sentence can still be provided with extra information. A few of the examples of nonrestrictive participial phrases are the following:

He ran into the wall, banging his nose in the process (Mills, 2011).
She yelled at me, making me cry (Mills, 2011).
Everyone over 50 was fired, causing an uproar (Mills, 2011).

Complete sentences:
He ran into the wall, banging his nose in the process, which made it bleed a lot.
She yelled at me, making me cry, I ran to my mother.
Everyone over 50 was fired, causing an uproar, they panicked.

The main difference between a restrictive and a nonrestrictive participle phrase is its limitation or restrictions. A restrictive participle phrase is only bounded to one topic and cannot be provided with extra information, while, a nonrestrictive participle phrase can be provided with extra information which is the purpose of the commas. Remember, if you want to add information, make sure to add a comma.

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Gabrielle Love Acero

Gabrielle Love Acero loves to write in any form since she was still a little girl. Her writing skills were enhanced through reading books, articles, and informative materials such as Reader’s Digest. They are also her hobbies. She began her blog site at the age of 11. She wrote her experiences in life. With her experiences, she became a scriptwriter during her High School years. One of her movies that she directed and produced won 2nd place against 7 high school institutions (public and private) in the city where she is living. The interschool competition was hosted by Commission on Population (PopCom) – Region X. She puts effort into doing these things because it is her passion. She is one of the top of the class during her Elementary and High School years. She graduated as the Class Valedictorian in Junior High School. At the age of 9, Gabrielle Love Acero started participating and engaging in voluntary activities, especially at church. She entered the kids’ choir and joined “Sidewalk Saturday School (SSS)” as a volunteer. She taught indigenous children about God and His love for them in a certain area, including skit-playing and Bible-reading. With those experiences, she continued being a volunteer at heart until the present day. At the age of 13, she became a Worship leader in the church where she is currently attending since 2007. Her dedication, commitment, and love for God and His people made her become one of the assets of the church. She is one of the youth leaders. Gabrielle Love Acero is currently a junior student of Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in Medical Biology at Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, where she continues to work towards her dream of becoming a doctor in the near future. She is also involved in extracurricular organizations. She is currently the President of Xavier University Red Cross Youth (XU – RCY), where she plans, organizes, and implements humanitarian activities for the community with her team. Also, she is a 1st class Cadet Officer at Xavier University Philippine Air Force - Reserve Officer Training Corps (XU PAF ROTC), where she teaches basic military trainings based on her military training experiences. Also, she implies military leadership to her lower classes. Not despising her Biology degree, she put her efforts into her studies and get involved in Biophilic (Biology) Society activities with her colleagues. Many people are awed by her experiences and involvements, especially her time management skills, but with humility, she believes that her life is not her own, but with a purpose. Gabrielle Love Acero hopes to learn more about life and the field she is currently in. She is goal-oriented and exemplifies excellence in everything she does, not because of herself, but because of the greater One living inside her.